Urology, also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs. The organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis).
The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other. Thus, a major spectrum of the conditions managed in urology exists under the domain of genitourinary disorders. Urology combines the management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) conditions, such as urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the management of surgical conditions such as the bladder or prostate cancer, kidney stones, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence.
Urology has traditionally been on the cutting edge of surgical technology in the field of medicine, including minimally invasive robotic and laparoscopic surgery, laser-assisted surgeries, and a host of other scope-guided procedures. Urologists are trained in open and minimally invasive techniques, employing real-time ultrasound guidance, fiber-optic endoscopic equipment, and various lasers in the treatment of multiple benign and malignant conditions. Also, urologists are pioneers in the use of robotics in laparoscopic surgery. Urology is closely related to (and urologists often collaborate with the practitioners of) oncology, nephrology, gynecology, andrology, pediatric surgery, colorectal surgery, gastroenterology, and endocrinology.
It is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient.
With disease these nephrons get damaged, the kidneys can lose their filtering abilities. This means high and life-threatening levels of waste products and chemicals in the body. When the kidneys have lost around 90% of their filtering ability, the person is said to have end-stage kidney disease.
A kidney transplant may be performed regardless of the age of the recipient (patient who requires the kidney) provided they have a good health status that can withstand the major operation. Then only there is a good chance of transplant success, and to know if the person is aware and willing to comply to take immunosuppressant medications after the transplant, so as to prevent rejection of the new organ by the body’s immune system.
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