Urology / Kidney Transplant - medECUBE
Urology / Kidney Transplant

Urology / Kidney Transplant

Urology, also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs. The organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis).

 

The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other. Thus, a major spectrum of the conditions managed in urology exists under the domain of genitourinary disorders. Urology combines the management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) conditions, such as urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the management of surgical conditions such as the bladder or prostate cancer, kidney stones, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence.

Urology has traditionally been on the cutting edge of surgical technology in the field of medicine, including minimally invasive robotic and laparoscopic surgery, laser-assisted surgeries, and a host of other scope-guided procedures. Urologists are trained in open and minimally invasive techniques, employing real-time ultrasound guidance, fiber-optic endoscopic equipment, and various lasers in the treatment of multiple benign and malignant conditions. Also, urologists are pioneers in the use of robotics in laparoscopic surgery. Urology is closely related to (and urologists often collaborate with the practitioners of) oncology, nephrology, gynecology, andrology, pediatric surgery, colorectal surgery, gastroenterology, and endocrinology.

 

Kidney Transplant

 

It is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient.

 

Who needs a kidney transplant?

 

With disease these nephrons get damaged, the kidneys can lose their filtering abilities. This means high and life-threatening levels of waste products and chemicals in the body. When the kidneys have lost around 90% of their filtering ability, the person is said to have end-stage kidney disease.

 

Common causes of end stage kidney disease include:-

 

    • Diabetes – These patients have a continuously high blood sugar. This high blood sugar can damage the filters in the kidneys, leading to long-term kidney damage and finally kidney failure. This is called diabetic nephropathy.

 

    • High blood pressure or hypertension – This is another common cause of kidney disease and failure. High blood pressure in the tiny blood vessels to the kidney leads to damage and prevents the filtering process from working properly.

 

    • Blockages in the arteries that bring blood to the kidneys over time called renal artery stenosis is another cause of end-stage renal disease

 

    • Another condition is called polycystic kidney disease which is an inherited condition. There are several large cysts or hollow spaces formed within the kidney that make its normal functioning difficult.

 

    • There may be congenital problems in the development of kidneys. This occurs since before birth and manifests when over 90% of the kidney function is compromised.

 

    • Disease of the immunity such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in which the immune system of the body fails to recognize the kidney as its own and attacks it thinking it to be a foreign object.
    • Treatment for end-stage kidney disease

 

    • End-stage kidney disease needs treatment to prevent life-threatening consequences of the waste product build up leading to coma and death. In these situations, a dialysis is an option.

 

    • A device is used to filter the blood as it flows through it and the filtered blood is then injected back into the body. This is time-consuming, expensive procedure and is associated with a myriad of side effects and risks of infection, etc.

 

    • Kidney transplant, if possible, is usually the preferred option because it is much less inconvenient than having dialysis.

 

When can a kidney transplant take place?

A kidney transplant may be performed regardless of the age of the recipient (patient who requires the kidney) provided they have a good health status that can withstand the major operation. Then only there is a good chance of transplant success, and to know if the person is aware and willing to comply to take immunosuppressant medications after the transplant, so as to prevent rejection of the new organ by the body’s immune system.

 

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