Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.
The most common procedures performed by orthopedic surgeons are as follows.
Knee arthroscopy and meniscectomy
Knee arthroscopy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Repair of femoral neck fracture
Repair of trochanteric fracture
Shoulder arthroscopy / distal clavicle excision
Shoulder arthroscopy and decompression
Debridement of skin / muscle / bone / fracture
Joint replacement surgery is basically a resurfacing of damaged joint surface with the artificial one. A joint is where two or more bones come together. Joints that can be replaced include Hip, Knee, shoulder, finger, ankle, and elbow.
Joints can be damaged by usual wear and tear process, rheumatoid arthritis, injuries, or other causes. This can cause pain, stiffness, and swelling. Diseases you need joint replacement surgery if your activity has come down drastically and you have to take pain medicine on regular basic.
Joint replacement is ideally done for a patient above the age of 60 years. It may be done between ages of 40 and 60. It is rarely done between ages of 20 to 40. It is never done in children.
Pain after surgery is quite variable from person to person, and not entirely predictable, but modern medications and improved anesthetic techniques have brought good control of pain and discomfort after surgery.
It is advisable to use elevated seat commode, avoid sitting on the lower seats, jogging, running and fast sports after joint replacement. Moderate speed walking, climbing stairs and swimming are permitted.
The term ‘sports injury’ refers to the kinds of injuries that most commonly occur during sports or exercise. Some sports injuries result from accidents; others are due to poor training practices, improper equipment, lack of conditioning, or insufficient warm-up and stretching.
Although virtually any part of your body can be injured during sports or exercise, the term is typically reserved for injuries that involve the musculoskeletal system, which includes the muscles, bones, and associated tissues like cartilage.
Acute and Chronic are two different types of Sports injuries.
Acute injuries, such as a sprained ankle, strained back or fractured hand, occur suddenly during activity. Signs of an acute injury include the following:
Sudden, severe pain
Inability to place weight on a lower limb
Extreme tenderness or weakness in an upper limb
Inability to move a joint through its full range of motion
Visible dislocation or break of a bone.
Chronic injuries usually result from overusing one area of the body while playing a sport or exercising over a long period. The following are signs of a chronic injury:
Pain when performing an activity
A dull ache when at rest
Arthroscopy of the joints which are commonly injured especially shoulder & knee joint has advanced in last couple of years. These days most of the sports related injuries like ACL tear, PCL tear, Shoulder Dislocation, SLAP tear can be managed with Arthroscopy. This helps in early rehabilitation and quick return to high level sports activity.
Treatment depends on the type and severity of the injury. Always see your doctor if pain persists after a couple of days. What you may think is a straightforward sprain may actually be a fractured bone.
Physiotherapy can help to rehabilitate the injured site and, depending on the injury, may include exercises to promote strength and flexibility. Returning to sport after injury depends on your doctor’s or physiotherapist’s assessment. Trying to play before the injury is properly healed will only cause further damage and delay recovery.
HAND, FOOT & ANKLE
Common issues relating to the foot and ankle are heel pain, foot pain, forefoot pain, ankle pain, numbness, burning and ankle swelling.
An ankle sprain occurs when there is tearing of the lateral ankle ligaments, the tibia or the fibula.
Ankle sprains can be treated by applying ice, compression, elevation, progressive functional rehabilitation and by getting rest.
Follow the instructions for RICE –
Rest the injured limb
Use an Ice-pack to help limit swelling
Compress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage
Elevate the injured limb above your heart whenever possible
Consult your doctor in following cases-
You are unable to bear weight on the injured joint, the joint feel unstable or numb or you are unable to use it.
You have severe pain.
You develop redness or red streaks that spread out from the injured area
You have re-injured the area that has been injured number of times in the past
The first thing to do is to catch your breath. Check and see if you are injured. Take your time before getting up again. Follow these five steps-
Lie on your side, bend the leg that is on top and lift yourself onto your elbows or hands.
Pull yourself toward an armchair or other sturdy object, and then kneel while placing both hands on the chair or object.
Place your stronger leg in front, holding on to the chair or object.
Very carefully, turn and sit down
Some of the common symptoms related to fall are loss of consciousness, a strong or lingering pain, dizziness, nausea, headaches, etc. Symptoms may appear in the days that follow a fall. In case of any of these symptoms, consult your doctor immediately.
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